Monday, May 7, 2012

"Observations upon the Peloponnesus and Greek Islands - 1829" by Rufus Anderson, FREE ebook


This antiquarian book is available through the following link as a FREE Google ebook.


Made in 1829.

By Rufus Anderson,
One of the Secretaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.

Published by Crocker and Brewster in 1830.

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.—Reasons for a special agency to the Mediterranean— 
Embarkation—Sight of Europe and Africa—Contrast between the present 
and former religious condition of northern Africa—Remarks upon the 
Mediterranean and its coasts—Arrival at Malta—Quarantine—Intercourse 
with missionaries and others—St. Paul's Bay—Churches and palaces— 
Malta as a missionary station—Embark, with Rev. Eli Smith, for Greece 
—Objects of the tour in Greece—Political geography of the country—Route 
pnrsued—Plan of this work.—Agency of Mr. Smith in it—Geographical 
nomenclature—The author desirous of subserving the interests of the 
Greek people—Has no pecuniary interest in the sale of this volume

PART FIRST. 
NARRATIVE OF THE TOUR: Including Observations Upon 
THE MORE INTERESTING LOCALITIES AND SCENERY; UPON THE 
SOIL, AGRICULTURE, AND PRODUCTIONS; THE EFFECTS OF WAR 
ON THE TOWNS, VILLAGES, AND PLANTATIONS; AND THE MAN- 
NERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE INHABITANTS. 
THE PELOPONNESUS. 

Chapter I.—Enter the province of Elis—Clarentsa—Chloumoutsi cas- 
tle—Plain of Elis—Manner of travelling—Roads—From Clarentsi to Ali 
Chelebi—A khan—Enter the province of Achaia—Pastoral life—Paleo- 
Achaia—Church of St. Andrew—Patras—Profanation of the Sabbath— 
From Patras to Bostitsa—Scene of wretchedness—Hospitable reception— 
Domestic employments—Bostitsa—Ancient republic of Achaia—From 
Bostitsa to Xilocastron—Remarks on the plains alongthe northern coast- 
Unexpected meeting—Enter the province of A R Go Lis—Plain of Corinth— 
Arrival at the city

Chapter II.—Province of Argolis continued—Present condition of Co- 
rinth—Apostolical labors and Christian church in Corinth—Acrocorinthus, 
and the prospect from thence—Sicyon— Propensity of the Greeks to mul- 
tiply churches—Ride to the Nemean plain—Customs on Easter Sunday— 
Isthmus of Corinth—American colony—Cenchrea—Isthmian town and 
wall—Hermione—Cranidi—Plain of Troezen—Commence our principal 
tour in the Peloponnesus—Epidaurus—Grove of iEsculapius—Ligurion— 
Plain of Argos—Nauplion—Tiryns—Mycenre—The harvest season—Argos 
< —Funeral and marriage processions—Fountain of Erasinus—Sftirsh of 
Lema—Cross mount Parthenium into the province of Arcadia. 

Chapter III.—Province of Arcadia—First appearance of Arcadia—A 
Grecian lady—Plain of Tegea—Tripolitsa—Gipsies—School—Route to 
Calabryta—Plain of Mantinea—Subterranean passages for water—Plain 
of Orchomenus—Plain of Dara—Branch of the Ladon—Beautiful glen— 
Another branch of the Ladon and charming plain—Elevated sites of vil- 
lages—Romantic dell—Plain of Catsanes—Manner of ploughing and irri- 
gating the ground and cultivating Indian corn—Ascend to the plain of 
Soudena—Southern limits of the modern Achaia—One of the capitani— 
Influence of elevation on climate—Magnificent scene—Calabryta—Route 
to the Convent of Megaspelawn—Description of the convent with its re- 
cent history—Plains on the river of Calabryta—Extent of arable ground— 
Ascent of mount Erymanlhus—Valley of the Ery mantlius—Psophis—Enter 
Elis again—Dibris—New aspect of the .country, 

Chapter IV.—Province of Elis continued—Productions of the plains— 
Lala—Douca—Plain of Olympia—Valley of the Alpheus—Re-enter the 
province of Arcadia—Rivers Eryraanthus and Ladon—District of Isado- 
ras—Albanian villages—Langadia—"Heap of cursing"—River Gortynius 
—Reception at Demetsana—School—Description of the place—Religious 
customs—Conversation with a school-master—On making the Scriptures 
our only rule of faith and practice—The Oeconomos of Demetsana—Mule- 
teers—Costume—Food of the peasantry—Striking scenery on the road to 
Carylama—Carytama—Theodore Colocotrones—Mount Lycreus and fine 
views—Andritsana and its school—Another heap of cursing—Situation at 
night—Temple ofApolio Epicurius—River Neda—Enter the province of 
Upper Messenia—Comparative interest of this province—Custom in re- 
lation to the dead—New range of mountains—Convenience of a tent— 
Scripture imagery from pastoral life—District and town of Arkadia—Road 
to Navarino—Philiatra—Reflections on the battle of Navarino—Navarino 
—Mothone—Corone, 

Chapter V.—Province of Lower Messenia—Arable ground bordering on 
the gulf—Nisi—River Pamisus and its plain—Mane—Calamata—Villages 
and fruit trees on the east side of the valley of Messenia— Fountain of the 
Pamisus—Messene—Plain of Stenyclerus—Defile of Derbenia—Again en- 
ter Arcadia—Delightful change of air—Leontari—Plain of Megalopolis 
and other objects seen from the castle of Leontari—Enter the province of 
Laconia—Sabbath at the Fountain of the Eurotas—Villages and cultivated 
plain—Manner of treating the mulberry trees and silkworm—Superstition 
of theevil eye—Laconian rose—Plain of Sparta—Splendid scenery around 
Mistras—Mistras—Greek antipathy against the Jews—Lacedwmon—View 
from the castle of Mistras—Produce of the plain—Sparta—Sclabo Chori— 
Middle regions of the Taygetus—District of Bardounia—Marathonesi— 
Population and products of Mane—Helos—Cross the Malatc peninsula— 
Monembasia—End of the tour and remarks upon it—Extent of the desola- 
tions occasioned by the war—Extent of Agriculture—Trees and shrubs— 
Wild animals, 

ISLANDS OF THE ^EGEAN. 
Chapter VI.—Wksterh Simikad.es—Hydra—Appearance of the town— 
Census—History of the island—Commerce and maritime power—inter- 
course with the people—Spctsa—Reception—Recent history—Principal 
causes of safety to the traveller in Greece—Remarks on the system of pass- 
ports—Porus—Burying ground—View of the island and town—Women— 
Visit to the temple of Neptune—Monastery—JEgina—May-day—Temple 
of Jupiter Panhellenius—Refugees—Description of the town and island— 
Grecian society—A monk requests that his epitome of the Gospels may be 
re-printed—Northern Ctcladbs—General aspect of the islands—Syra— 
Roman Catholic town—Hermoupolis—Tenos—St. Nicholas—Marriage of 
Mr. King—Governor of the N. Cyclades—Church of the Evangelista— 
Andri■s—Myconos—Dcloa—Return to Syra—Desolation and neglect that 
have befallen the more sacred places of ancient Greece—Scio—Voyage to 
Smyrna—Return to Malta, 

IONIAN ISLANDS. 
Chapter VII.—Voyage from Malta to the island of Corfu—Introduction to 
the Ionian Islands—Magnificent scenery of Epirus—Position and history 
of the Ionian Islands—Population of the islands—Cily of Corfu—Ancient 
temple—Excursion into the interior, with remarks upon the island—"Ship 
Ulysses"—Mount Ceraunia—Roads—Cultivation of the olive, and the 
moral consequences of this—Complexity in the rights of property—Pro- 
fessor Bambas—Preaching of Typaldos—Christian idolatry—Priesthood— 
Churches—Support of the clergy—Religious character of the people—Influ- 
ence of Venetian policy—Toleration granted by the present Constitution 
—Connection between church and state—Bishops—Papal Greeks—Jews— 
Printing establishment—Versions of the Scriptures—Restrictions on the 
press—Masquerades—Obtain an interpreter for the tour, 

Chapter VIH.—From Corfu to Santa Maura—Historical associations—Isl- 
and of Pazo—Island of SanLa Maura—Amaxichi—Remarks upon the 
island—Ce/alovia—Argostoli—Lixuri—Ruins of Cranium—Convent of St. 
Andrew and female boarding school—Cross the island—Pilaro—Samos— 
Remarks upon the island and its inhabitants—Treatment received from the 
Greek clergy of Argostoli and cause of it—Intercourse with laymen—Isl- 
and of Ithaca—Physical character—Bathi—Fountain of Arethnsa—Social 
intercourse—Bishop of Ithaca—Castle of Ulysses—Detention—Police regu- 
lations—Chief occupation of the Ithacians—Island of Zante—City—Condi- 
tion of females—Remarks upon the island, 

PART SECOND. 
CONTAINING OBSERVATIONS UPON THE TERRITORY, POPULATION, 
AND GOVERNMENT OF GREECE; UPON THE STATE AND PROSPECTS 
OF EDUCATION} UPON THE GREEK CHURCH; AND UPON THE 
MEASURES TO BE PURSUED BY PROTESTANTS FOR THE BENEFIT 
OF ORIENTAL CHURCHES. 
TERRITORY, POPULATION, AND GOVERN- 
MENT OF GREECE. 

Chapter I.—Territory, according to the Protocol of Feb. 3, 1830—Popula- 
tion—Peloponnesus compared with the state of Massachusetts—Its ancient 
inhabitants never as many as might have been sustained by the products 
of the soil—A much greater number may be sustained now, than could 
have been in ancient times—Government—Manner of its first organiza- 
tion under the Presidency of Capo d'Istrias—Particular acts—Mode of col- 
lecting the tithes—Demogerontes and Extraordinary Commissioners— 
Judiciary—Proceedings in relation to the fourth national congress—Con- 
templated revision of the Constitution, 

STATE AND PROSPECTS OF EDUCATION. 
Chapter II.—State of education in the last century—Means of instruction 
enjoyed by the Greeks previous to the revolution—Resort to foreign uni- 
versities—Heroic patriotism of five hundred educated Greeks—Activity of 
the Grecian mind—Few books yet in Greece—Public spirit of the Zosi- 
mades—Elementary education quite overlooked before the revolution— 
Great interest beginning to be taken in it—Views, plana, and proceedings 
of the Greek government, 

Chapter IlL—Feeling among the people at large on the subject of educa- 
tion—Subscriptions in towns and villages for tree-schools—Contributions 
made by convents—Individual munificence—Rise of the female school at 
Syra—Letter from a Greek female—" American School" at Syra—Sabbath 
school at Syra—Orphan school at ./Egina—Schools at Nauplion, Argos, 
Tripolitsa and Demetsana—Scarcity of elementary books—In what man- 
ner a supply is to be furnished—What books would be acceptable—Vast 
importance of this branch of benevolent effort—Printing presses—On the 
establishment of schools—System of instruction in the Ionian Islands— 
Preliminary observations—Elementary schools—Classical schools—Uni- 
versity—Theological Seminary—General remarks, 

THE GREEK CHURCH. 
Chapter IV.—Considerations imparting an interest to the Greek church— 
Ancient churches of Corinth and Athens—Seminary at Athens—Bishoprics 
in Greece in the fourth century—View of the decline of the Greek churchy 
and of the introduction of some of its more remarkable ususres—Gospel con- 
taminated by false philosophy—Progress towards a splendid ritual—Regen- 
eration believed to result from baptism—Origin of the prejudice against 
marriage—Rise of monachism—Christianity becomes the religion of the 
Roman empire—Multiplication of churches—Rise of picture and image 
worship—Invocation of departed saints—Private confession—Pilgrimages, 
etc.—Origin of masses—Festivals—The church oppressed with rites and 
ceremonies—General councils—Idolatry at its height—Controversy on the 
subject—Councils—Triumph of idolatry—Controversy respecting the pro- 
cession of the Holy Ghost—Greek fondness for controversy—Ignorance 
of the Scriptures—Vain effort to unite the eastern and western churches— 
Fall of Constantinople—Attempts of the Roman pontiff to subject the. 
Greek church to his authority—^correspondence between the German re- 
formers and the Greek patriarch—The patriarch Cyril Lucaris—His opin- 
ions anathematized—Doctrine of transubstantiation adopted by the Greek 
Church—Reflections, 

Chapter V.—Present condition of the Greek Church.—Us extent—Its four 
patriarchates—Different orders of the clergy—Their revenue—Doctrines 
of the church—The seven mysteries, or sacraments—Fasts and feasts— 
Excommunication—Churches—Public worship—Public worship performed 
throughout the east in on unknown tongue—Colony of priests at Mount 
Athos, 

Chapter VI.—General remarks upon that part of the Greek church, which 
exists in liberated Greece—Ignorance and superstition of the people—Rea- 
sons for anticipating a reform—Missionary operations—Remarks upon 
the meaures to be pursued by Protestants for the benefit of oriental 
churches, 

APPENDIX.—Names of places in Greece—Bearings of remarkable places 
and objects—Agricultural farm on the plain of Argos—Greek newspapers 
—Itinerary in the Peloponnesus, 



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